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独家!江西中考阅读技巧分类总结已送达!

考试加油站 | 2019-06-21 | 标签:独家,江西,中考,阅读,技巧,分类,总结,已,送达,

标题是文章的点睛之笔,是文章的灵魂和门面。选择标题主要考查威尼斯4058com在通读全文的基础上,认真分析主人公的特定心态,文章大意及作者的写作意图。

一、考查方式

What’sthebesttitleforthepassage?(最为常见)

Thebesttitleforthispassagemightbe______?

Thepassagecouldbeentitled______?

二、特征

1.选标题题目正确选项的特征

1)醒目新颖(吸引读者兴趣和注意力)

2)概括性强(最大程度上覆盖全文,囊括文章的主要内容)

3)针对性强(直接指向文章的主要特点)

2.选标题题目干扰选项的特征

1)过于笼统,不知所云(所给选项内容概括的范围过大,超出文章所讲述的内容)

2)以偏概全,主次不分(所给选项只阐述了文章的一部分内容,或以文章中的细节信息极个别字词作为选项的设置内容,或以次要的事实或细节充当全文的主要观点)

3)移花接木,偷换概念(所给选项被命题者有意识地把本属于A的内容放在B上,一不留神,极容易选错答案)

4)无中生有,生搬硬套(所给选项的关键词语虽然在文章中谈到了,但是选项的内容和文章的内容没有关系)

5)不够具有吸引力(若2个选项都能概括文章,就选更有吸引力的那个选项)

三、解题方法

1.逆向思维法(如果我是作者,遇到这样的标题,文章应该怎么写)

2.问自己3个问题:

1).What'sthemainideaofthepassage?

2).Whatcanwelearnfromthepassage?

3).Whatdoesthewriterwanttotellus?

主旨大意题

主旨大意题考查威尼斯4058com对一篇文章或一段文字的深层理解程度及在速读中准确把握文章主旨大意的能力。

一、分类及考查方式

1.考查文章大意

What’sthemainideaofthepassage?

Whatdoesthepassagemainlydiscuss?

Thepassageismainlyabout_______?

Whichofthefollowingcanbestsummarizethepassage?

Whichofthefollowingcanbeststatesthethemeofthepassage?

Thepassageiswrittento________?

Whatisthemainpurposeofthepassage?

2.考查段落大意

Whatdoestheauthortellusinparagraph2?

Themainideaofthesecondparagraphprobablyis_____?

Thefirstparagraphismainlyabout______?

Whichofthefollowingcanbestsummarizeparagraph1?

二、特征

1.主旨大意题正确选项的特征

1)涵盖性强,覆盖全文或全段

2)确定的范围恰当,既不太大也不小

3)精确性强,不会改变语言表达的程度及色彩

2.主旨大意题干扰选项的特征

1)过于笼统,不知所云(所给选项内容概括的范围过大,超出文章所讲述的内容)

2)以偏概全,主次不分(所给选项只阐述了文章的一部分内容,或以文章中的细节信息极个别字词作为选项的设置内容,或以次要的事实或细节充当全文的主要观点)

3)移花接木,偷换概念(所给选项被命题者有意识地把本属于A的内容放在B上,一不留神,极容易选错答案)

4)无中生有,生搬硬套(所给选项的关键词语虽然在文章中谈到了,但是选项的内容和文章的内容没有关系)

三、解题步骤

1.(重中之重!!!)永远把主旨大意题放在最后做。因为我们要读完全文才能把握文章主题,而且先做完另外几道题,会帮助我们加深对整篇文章的了解!

2.(解题关键)找出主题句,把握文章主旨

有2种解题方法:

1)主题句定位:读首句抓大意;读尾句抓大意;读首尾段抓大意;

2)无明显主题句时找高频信息词。(一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,有的文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出现的中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词)

例如:议论文中寻找表达作者观点态度的词句,记叙文寻找概括情节和中心的动词或反映人物特点的形容词。

当文中出现两种或两种以上不同的观点时,要牢记作者的观点才是体现全文中心的。

此时,要注意一些转折词,如but,yet,however,although,inspiteof,bycontrast,onthecontrast等。当文章中表示相反的观点时,往往用到这些词。答题时要弄清哪个是作者的观点,排除迷惑性信息,准确归纳主旨大意。

推理判断题

推理判断题要求考生能从字里行间理解文章的深层含义,即作者的态度、意图、倾向等,而且能把握全篇的文脉,即句与句、段与段之间的关系,并据此进行合乎逻辑的推理和判断。此题型在阅读理解中所占比例越来越大。

一、分类及考查方式

1.分类

观点态度判断、目的判断(写作目的和活动目的)、事情的发展方向判断、文章的出处判断、数字判断、是非判断、因果判断等。

2.考查方式

Whatcanweinferfromthepassage?

Whatcanwelearnfromparagraph3?

What’stheauthor’sattitudetoward...?

Whichofthefollowingistrue?

Inwritingthepassage,thewriterintendsto...?

二、错误选项的特征

1.照抄原文原句;

2.根据大家的常识确实正确,但却不是基于文章;

3.文不符题或答非所问;

4.选项看似合理,但有违主旨,以偏概全;

5.太过绝对化或太过于强烈的词汇,如:all,never,always,only,just等

三、解题步骤

1.抓住特定信息进行逆向或正向推理

做此类试题要善于抓住某一段话中的关键信息,即某些关键词或短语去分析、推理、判断,利用逆向或正面推理,从而推断出这句话所隐含的深层含义。

2.整合全文(段)信息进行推断

做推断题时,有时需要在弄懂全文或全段意思的基础上,整合与题目相关的有用信息,综合起来去推理判断,确定最佳结论。

3.利用语境的褒贬性进行信息推断

几乎每篇文章的语境都有一定的褒贬性,这种褒贬性反映了主人公的特定心理和情绪状态及作者的写作意图,因此利用好文章的语境褒贬性就能在把握主旨文意的基础上对文章进行准确的逻辑判断。认真阅读原文并找出反映语境褒贬性及变化的标志性词语或句子,对我们掌握文章主旨大意,了解主人公的心理特点及发展变化,从而正确地进行逻辑推断很有好处。

实战演练

如何选标题

(1)

Atmyprimaryschool,Iwasoneofthesmartestkidsthere.Ineverstudied,butalwaysgotperfectscores.IthoughtIwasbornclever.AtleastIbelievedso.Iwasalsoaprodigyinmusicaccordingtomyself.Icouldsingbetterthanalmosteveryoneelseinmyschool.IwasprettysurethatonceIgottosixthgrade,everyonewouldbesurprisedbyme.

Butactually,theyweren’t.

WhenIarrivedatmynewclass,Icouldn’twaittoshoweveryonewhatIcoulddo.However,therewasalwayssomeoneelsewhocoulddobetter.Mygradesbegantosuffer.Moretalentedgirlsoftensangsolo(独唱).IbelievedIwasn’tsmart.IbelievedIwasn’ttalented.IbelievedIwasafailure.

Overthenexttwoyears,Ihadtoworkveryhard.Everyprizeforthesingingcompetitionwasgiventomeforhardworkandeffort.Gradeswerestillverylowbutimprovinglittlebylittle.Iworkedreallyhard.However,Iwasneverthebestateverything.

Ihaven’trealizeduntilrecentlythatIreallydon’thavetobethebestateverything.Iwastoohardonmyself.Infact,whenIdidbadlyinatest,myclassmatesneverlaughedatme.

Nooneisperfect.Therewillprobablyalwaysbesomeonebetterthanmeatsomething.Anyway,thereareaboutsevenbillionpeopleinthisworld.Iwillneverbethenumberoneateverything,andthat’sreallyokay.

(A)1.Whichwouldbethebesttitleforthispassage?

A.WhenIwasn’tperfect.

B.Mypastlifeasayounggirl.

C.Hardworkdoesn’twork.

D.Whattodowhenyou’renotperfect.

解析:文章为叙事文,中心句通常为第一段或最后一段。文章通过作者前后的对比,以前总是学校歌唱的最好,到了新班级后发现总有人比她做得更好,最后意识到不是每一件事情都要成为最好的那个。B选项范围太广,含糊概括,不符合文章表达意思;C选项为文章细节,且不正确,偷换概念,以偏概全;D选项所表达意思与文章不符。

(2)

MomandDad–they’retwoofthemostimportantpeopleinyourlife.Youprobablyseeatleastoneofthemeverydayand,overyourlifetime,theymayinfluenceyoumorethananyoneelseyouwillmeet.

MomsandDadsneedtocarefortheirkidsfromtheminutethey’reborn.It’saparent’sjobtoloveandhelpkids—andmostparentswilldothisaspossibleastheycan,evenwhenthe“kids”growupandhavechildrenoftheirown.Thatmeansyouhavemanyyearsaheadtosharewithyourmomanddad.

Herearesomewaysyoucanstayclose,getalong,andbuildastrongrelationship:

Spendtimetogether.Don’tplayacomputergameorwatchTVbyyourself.Askyourmomanddadtoplaywithyou,gooutsidetogether,playagame,orreadabookoutloud.Trytospendmoretimetogether.

Shareyourfeelingsandaskforhelp.Manykidssaythey’dliketheirparentstohelpthemwhenthey’reunhappy.Tellthemifyou’resadorhaveaproblem.They’llbehappytohelpyou.

Bekindandcaring.Littlethingsmightmeanalottoyourmomordad.Youcanbrightenaparent’sdaywithahug,acard,orajoke.It’salsolovelywhenakidcleansuphisorherroomwithoutbeingasked.It’simportanttoshowthatyoucareforeachother.Kidsandparentsshowtheirlovebyrespecting(尊重)eachother,andbeingcaring,politeandthoughtful.

Doyourbestatwhateveryoudo.Youdon’thavetobeperfect,butwhenyoudoyourbest,youmakeyourparentsproud.Itmakesthemhappytoseehowyou’returningintoagreatkid.Why?Becauseitletsthemknowyou’redoingagoodjob.

(A)2.Whichcanbethebesttitleofthepassage?

A.GettingAlongwithYourParents

B.TalkingtoYourParents

C.WhenYourParentsFight

D.SpendingMoreTimewithYourParents

解析:本文为议论文。中心句为“Herearesomewaysyoucanstayclose,getalong,andbuildastrongrelationship”。BD都为文章的细节,以偏概全;C选项不符合文章表达思想。

(3)

ForSchultz,a77-year-oldman,thisisachanceofalifetime.Schultzispartofagroupofaround50GermanswhoareonabusjourneyalongtheancientSilkRoad.

Speakingofhisjourney,hesays:“IhavebeendeeplyinterestedintheSilkRoadsinceIwasachild,butnowIfinallyhaveachancetoexperienceit.”

Thetwo-monthbusjourneywilltakethegroupthroughGermany,Russia,andother4Europeancountries.TheywillthenenterChinafromthecountry’swesternpart.Itwillbeanunforgettablememoryforthem.

Nearlyhalfofthe13,000-kilometertripwillbeinsideChina.FromXinjianginthewesttoShanghaiintheeast,theGermanvisitorswillseemorethan20Chinesecities.“WehavemanagedthetripoftheSilkRoadforaround10years.Anincreasingnumberofpeople,notonlyfromGerman-speakingcountries,havebeenjoiningus,”saysLiuGuoqiangfromChinaTours.

Almost26millionforeignerstraveledtoChinain2015,andabout5millionofthemwerefromEurope.Beijing,Xi’an,ShanghaiandtheChangjiangRiveraretraditionalChinesetraveldestinationsforEuropeantourists.Speakingofwherehewantstogo,Schultzsays,“Comparedwithmoderncities,thecultureinwesternChinaattracts(吸引)memore.

AsShiXiang,headoftheChinaTours,says,“Beinganewbrandtoattractforeignvisitors,theSilkRoadisgoodforpeopletoknowmoreaboutChina,especiallythenorthwesternpartofthecountry.”

(C)3.Whichisthebesttitleforthispassage?

A.SilkRoad:Afashionablewaytobuysilk

B.SilkRoad:AnoldbrandtoattractChinese

C.SilkRoad:AnewwaytolearnaboutChina

D.SilkRoad:Abetterchancetoseemoderncities

解析:本文为叙事文。文章以一个外国人的视角阐述了古代丝绸之路的魅力:越来越多的外国人因为丝绸之路来华旅游。A选项与文章内容无关;BD选项与文章细节不符,且以偏概全。

主旨大意题

(1)

Forjust$38,youcanhelponepersonsee;for$380,10peoplecansee;$1,300helpstrainadoctornewskills;andfor$13,000youcanprovideatrainingprogramforagroupofdoctorswhocanmakethousandsofblindpeopleseeagain.Yourlovecanhelpthemopentheireyestotheworld.

(D)1.Thelastparagraphismainlyabout_____.

A.howmuchatrainingprogramforagroupofdoctorscosts

B.whyORBISneedsyourhelptocontinuetheirwork

C.whocanmakethousandsofblindpeopleseeagain

D.whatyoucandotohelpblindpeopleopentheireyes

解析:本段中心句为最后一句。前面通过举例说明你所捐助的数额能够为盲人做什么以及起到什么作用,最后一句归纳总结。A选项为此段例子中的细节,以偏概全;B选项重点在why,但是此段没有说明;C选项重点应该说明是谁可以帮助到盲人以及为什么。

(2)

Multitasking(多重任务)isevenchangingtherelationshipbetweenfamilymembers.Asyoungpeoplegivesomuchattentiontotheirownworlds,theyseemtohavenotimetospendwiththeotherpeoplearoundthem.Theycannolongergreetfamilymemberswhentheyenterthehouse,norcantheyeatatthefamilytable.

(D)2.InParagraph3,theauthorpointsoutthat______.

A.familymembersdonotgreeteachother

B.familymembersdonoteatatthefamilytable

C.youngpeoplegetonwellwiththeirfamilies

D.youngpeoplehardlycommunicatewiththeirfamilymembers

解析:本段中心句为第一句,意为“多重任务正在改变家庭成员之间的关系。”后面举例阐述到底家庭成员之间的关系发生了怎样的变化:1.年轻人过多关注自己的世界,没有时间和身边的人相处;2.当他们走进房间时没有和其他人打招呼,也没有和家人一起吃晚餐。A,B选项为文中例子,以偏概全;C选项与文中表达意思不符合。

(3)

Somedaywewillallhaverobotsthatwillbeourpersonalservants(仆人).Theywilllookandbehavemuchlikerealhumans.Wewillbeabletotalktotheserobotsandtheywillbeabletoanswerus.Theywillbesmart,strong,andtire-lessworkers.Theironlylifegoalwillbetomakeourliveseasier.

(A)3.Whichsentenceexpressesthemainideaoftheparagraph?

A.Somedaywewillallhaverobotsasourpersonalservants.

B.Wecantalktotheserobotsandtheycananswerus.

C.Robotswilllookandbehavemuchlikerealhumans.

D.Therobotswillbesmart,strong,andtirelessworkers.

解析:本段中心句为第一句。BCD选项都为文中用来支撑中心句所列举的例子,以偏概全。

推理判断题

(1)

Ayounggirlraisesherhandinclasstoanswerteacher’squestion.Sheloudlysaystherightanswerbuthearssomebodycallhera“know-it-all”andseessomeoneelseroll(滚动)hiseyes.Shedoesn’tfeelcomfortableenoughtospeakupagainbecauseconfidentwomenarethoughttobe“bossy(专横的)”.

Thestereotype(成见)thatconfidentmenareleadersandconfidentwomenarebossygaverisetothe2014“BanBossy”campaign(“禁用专横”运动).Thiscampaignencouragesyounggirlstobecomeleadersandstayconfidentinthefaceofbeingcalled“bossy”.

LailaFarah,fromDePaulUniversity,US,saysshebelievesthisstereotypecomesfromhistory.“Thereisanoldideathatgirlsarenotascleverasboys,”Farahsays.“Thereisalsoanotherveryoldideathatwomenactaccordingtotheirfeelings.”

“Gender(性别)stereotypescomefromeverywhere,”Farahsays.“Itislearnedwhenpeoplenearlywerebabies,fromthetoyschosen,tosayinggirlsaren’tgoodatmath.”

InastudydonebytheGirlsLeadershipInstitute,manygirlssaidthatthebiggestthingholdingthembackfromtakingpartinclasswasgettingjudged(评判).Girlslearntokeeptheirideasandleadershipskillstothemselves.

Maybeinsteadofneverusingthewordbossy,weneedtoforgettheideathatbeingbossyisabadthing.Attheendoftheday,bossypeoplegetthejobdone.

(B)1.Thewriterseemstothinkthatgenderstereotypesare________.

A.cruel

B.unfair

C.impossible

D.acceptable

解析:本文是议论文。从文中最后一段可以看出,我们需要忘记“专横”是一件坏事这个主意,专横的人往往能把事情做好,所以对于自信的女性总是被称为专横是不公平的。

(2)

Anoldgentlemanwhoseeyesight(视力)wasfallingcametostayinahotelroomwithabottleofwine(酒)ineachhand.Onthewalltherewasaflywhichhetookforanail(钉子).Soassoonashehungthemon,thebottlesfellbrokenandthewinesplitalloverthefloor.

Whenawaitressdiscoveredwhathadhappened,shefeltreallysorryforhimandwantedtogivehimahand.

Sothenextmorningwhenhewasouttakingawalkinthegarden,sheputanailonthewallexactlywheretheflyhadstayed.

Nowtheoldmanenteredhisroom.Thesmellofthesplitwineremindedhimoftheaccident.Whenhelookedupatthewall,hefoundtheflywasthereagain!Hewalkedtoitcarefullyandhititwithallhisstrength.

Onhearingaloudcry,thewaitressrushedin.Tohergreatsurprise,thepooroldmanwastheresittingonthefloor,hisfacewaspaleandalotofbloodwasrunningonhisrighthand.

(B)2.Thewaitressmustbea_______girl.

A.careless

B.kind-hearted

C.dangerous

解析:一个视力下降的男人手持了两瓶酒住在酒店里,墙上有一只苍蝇,他错把苍蝇当成了钉子了,他想挂酒的时候酒瓶就碎了。从文中的“shefeltreallysorryforhimandwantedtogivehimahand.”可以看出女服务员是一个热心肠的人。

(3)

Whatshouldwedoifoneofourclassmatessuddenlyfallsillorgetshurt?Herearesomestepsyoushouldfollow.Butalwaysremembertolookformedicalcareafterfirstaid(急救)ifthewoundisserious.

Brokenbones(骨头):Takeawayclothingfromthewound.Useanicepack.Don’tmovethehurtbodypartwhilewaitingforthedoctortoarrive.

Animalbites(咬伤):Washthebiteareawithsoapandwater.Packthewoundwithacleanclothifitisbleeding.Ifthebleedinghasstopped,covertheareawithabandageandtakethepersontothehospital.Makesureyourememberwhatkindofanimalitissothedoctorcanfindtherightwaytotreathimorheratonce.

Fainting(昏厥):Havehimorherliewithfeetliftedalittle.Don’tmovethebodyifyouthinktheremightbewoundsfromthefall.Makesureheorshecanbreatheandletinfreshair.Cleantheperson’sfacewithacoolcloth.

Nosebleeds:Havethepersonsitupwithhisorherheadtilted(倾斜)forwardalittle.Donothavethepersontilthisorherheadbackbecausethismaycauseheavybreathingorcoughing.Pinch(捏)thelowerpartofthenoseforatleast10minutes.

(B)4.Whichpartofamagazinemaythepassagecomefrom?

A.Lifestyle.

B.Health.

C.Sports.

D.Education.

解析:从各个分标题可以看出文章是谈论健康的,所以可能会从健康板块摘取出来。



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